The Primo system as a novel circulatory system corresponding to classical acupuncture meridians was discovered in the early 1960’s by Bonghan Kim. Despite its potential importance in biology and medicine, it has been ignored or forgotten for a long time. Only recently have most of its significant parts, such as the Primo system inside blood or lymph vessels, on the surfaces of internal organs, and in brain ventricles, been confirmed.

Subsystem of Primo system

The primo-vascular system was proposed as an anatomical circulatory organ containing the anatomical structure of the acupuncture meridian system, i.e., anatomical structure of the meridian was found to be a part of a larger organ.The primo-vascular system is consisted of several subsystems; superficial BH system in the skin, intravascular BH system inside large blood and lymphatic vessels, organ-surface BH system on the surfaces of various internal organs and neuro BH system associated with the nervous system.
Several sub Primo-system

Bonghan ducts and corpuscles

The component parts of Bonghan system are Bonghan ducts and Bonghan corpuscles. The Bonghan corpuscles and ducts can be classified into several categories, the common structure of which being as follows:
  1. The Bonghan duct is a bundle of very fine Bonghan ductules with a diameter of 5 – 15um. The wall of the Bonghan ductile is composed of endothelial cells as in the case of the blood and lymphatic vessels. But the endothelial cells of the Bonghan ductule are very characteristic. The endothelial cell nucleus is of rod shape and abundant in chromatin and the electronic density is so high that its inner composition is hardly discernible in electron micrographs. The boundary of cytoplasm is not clear and only rod-shape nuclei arranged in and orderly manner on the wall of the Bonghan ductule can be seen. The wall of the Bonghan ductule is very thin; about 0.1 – 0.2 um in electron microscopic observation. Besides, the Bonghan ductule has outer membrane, which is composed of argyrophile fiber and outer membrane cells. The outer membrane cell takes a form similar to smooth muscle and it is presumably the contractile element of the Bonghan ductule. Several ductules are bound by a surrounding membrane.
  2. The Bonghan corpuscles are, without exception, linked with Bonghan ducts. The Bonghan corpuscles are formed through the enlargement, ramification and anastomosis of Bonghan ductules. The stroma covering the corpuscles is reticular tissue. This tissue is connected with the outer membrane of the Bonghan ductules and the surrounding membrane of the Bonghan ducts. The Bonghan duct contains basophilic granules, basophilic structures, nucleus-like structures and specific cells. They are related with the reproduction of formed elements
Primo-vessel from Dr. Kim
Primo-vessel from Dr. Shin and Dr. Jung

Intravascular Bonghan System

It is a system of Bonghan ducts and corpuscles distributed inside the blood and lymphatic vessels. Inter-linked Bonghan corpuscles and ducts are systematically distributed in all the arteries, veins, lymphatic vessels and in the heart. The inner Bonghan ducts lie freely in the flow of blood and they are ramified together with blood vessels. The Bonghan ducts inside the lymphatic vessel are visible from outside. The structure of the inner Bonghan corpuscle with a diameter of 0.1~0.2mm is similar to a small hematopoietic organ.
As in the organs producing erythrocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte, serials of their young cells are found in the net eyes of the reticular structure. The hematopoietic of the inner Bonghan corpuscles has been confirmed through various experiments. But their function is not confined to this. Groups of parenchyma cells of the organ and various other cells, basophilic substance and nucleus-like cells are found in these corpuscles.

Organ Surface Bonghan System

The organ surface Bonghan system is distributed on the surface of internal organs web-like inside the body.
organ suface primo-vacular system
Fig. 2.3. System of the organ surface Bonghan corpuscle and ducts [1]The organ surface Bonghan corpuscles and ducts (OSBHCDs) are distributed around a whole inside body involving the cervical region, the breast, and the abdominal region. The network of OSBHCDs spread with a rule even extremely complex. OSBHCDs are connected directly with all internal organs, endocrine glands, abdominal walls, etc in a somatic cavity.In anatomically, an OSBHC is a profound Bonghan corpuscle not related to the pathway of blood and lymphatic vessels, and not bound to the neighboring tissue. OSBHCs are mutually connected by organ surface Bonghan ducts (OSBHD). The corpuscles are connected either to two ducts at its two ends. The size of the corpuscles is about 0.2~1.0 mm. An OSBHC is usually connected to 2 ~ 7 Bonghan ducts, and the corpuscle are spindle-shaped or polygonal amorphous, semi-transparent, milky or slightly red. The corpuscles connected to two ducts at its two ends are spindle-shaped or oval. A corpuscle and cross at a point wrapped by connective tissue. - lovephysics님 제작,님 마지막 수정. Sep 21, 2014 4:16 am (총13회)
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