ON THE KYUNGRAK SYSTEM have been transcribed by Park Sang Hyun and uploaded into http://primosystem.wikispaces.com


JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES






OF THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLEC OF KOREA



ON THE KYUNGRAK SYSTEM


Report delivered by Prof. Kim Bong Han
at a scientific symposium in Pyongyang,
November 30, 1963


1963 No. 5



MEDICAL SCIENCE PRESS
Pyongyang, Korea

Editor’s Note


In modern biology the problem of the unity of the organism and the environment, problem of the regulating mechanism which ensures a complete co-ordination of the function and activity of each component of the organism, and problem of the biochemical basis of the activity of living substance, constitute the most fundamental problems.
Biologist and medical scientists of the world have set up a number of well-substantiated theories and attained valuable achievements in the course of their research into these problems.
But the modern biology and medical science still have many problems to solve-the function and role of nucleic acids in metabolism, the essence of hereditary phenomena, the growth and development of such diseases as tumor and their cure, etc.
This is connected with the fact that the modern biological theories still fail to give a full elucidation to the mechanism that ensures the unity of the activities of the organism.
Such limitations of the existing theories have long since placed it on the order of the day for biology and medical science to probe further into the secrets of the living substance, to find out a new course of development for themselves.
The Korean biologists and medical scientists found a clue to the solution of this problem in Kyungrak, which makes-up the core of Dongeuihak, the traditional Korean medicine, one of the brilliant scientific heritages handed down by their ancestors.
Professor Kim Bong Han and his associates discovered the substance of Kyungrak, a new antomico-histological system in the living body. It is an integrated system entirely different either from the nervous system or blood and lymphatic vessels. The results of their research were made public in August 1961, which created a sensation in the world of biology and medicine as the discovery of another secret of the living body.
Since then their research work made further progress, blazing the trail along an untrodden track to divulge the secrets of the organism.
The Kyungrak research collective clarified the histological microscopic composition of a structure (Bonghan corpuscle) found in the Kyunghyul position and a tubular structure (Bonghan duct) which connects the Bonghan corpuscles; they also disclosed their distribution and discovered new facts.
The Bonghan corpuscles, according to the results of their researches, have their own specific histological structure, and are distributed not only in the superficial layer of the skin but in the profound subcutaneous tissues, in the blood and lymphatic vessels and around the internal organs as well.
Bonghan ducts which link the Bonghan corpuscles are distributed round the artery, vein and lymphatic vessel, and even within them in an isolated manner, as well as in the superficial layer of the body.
The collective of Kyungrak researchers confirmed, through bioelectrical experiments, that the Kyungrak system has specific bioelectrical features. It was also proved that the Bonghan corpuscle is an excitable tissue which reacts differently to various external and internal stimuli and is correlated with certain internal organs.
The researchers delved into the chemical composition of the substance of the Bonghan duct (Bonghan liquor) by biochemical and histo-chemical methods, and established the fact that there was liquor circulating along a definite course in the Bonghan duct, a liquor containing nucleic acids, especially a large amount of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
This has made it necessary to reconsider the accepted conception that DNA exits only in the nucleus and that ribonucleic acid only in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
Today the substance of Kyungrak in all its aspects has been brought to light as a system covering the whole body, regulating and coordinating the biological processes that lie at the bottom of the vital activity.
This is indeed an epoch-making discovery and a big step forward in the development of biology and medical science. It is a product of bold scientific research free from existing formulas and theories, a fruit of enormous scientific stamina coupled with a high level of technique, and an embodiment of correct methods of analysis and synthesis applied form the viewpoint of unity between forms and functions.
In the long years of research work by Professor Kim Bong Han and his associates, there cropped up many difficulties and they had to grapple with countless complex problems. But they never yielded.
Comrade Kim Il Sung and the Central Committee of the Workers Party of Korea always showed deep concern for their research work, inspiring them with courage all the time. This enabled them boldly to explore an untrodden path of scientific investigation and bear the brilliant fruits of today.
With the great achievements of the research in the Kyungrak system, it has now become necessary to re-examine the prevailing theories that give on-sided explanation to the fundamental problems of the phenomena of life including the regulating mechanism of the living body, not knowing ht the Kyungrak system is an objective being.
The new achievements have opened up broad prospects of solution of such fundamental problems arising in modern biology and medical science as differentiation of the cells, metabolism, heredity, the reactivity of the organism, growth and development of diseases, etc., thus paving the way for the solution of problems of better health and longer life of man.
This great discovery by the scientists of our country signifies a revolutionary event ushering in a new stage in the development of modern biology and medical science. We are convinced that the discovery will go down in history as monument of science.
December 10, 1963

Introduction


It is one of the most fundamental questions in biology to fully clarify the material basis of the unity of the organism and the environment.
Modern biology considers that the unity of the activities of the organism is regulated by the functions of the nervous system and many humoral factors including hormone.
Such theories have solved many questions in modern biology, but they have failed to encompass all the mechanism providing the unity of the activities of the organism.
Our discovery of the substance of the Kyungrak system was of great significance in overcoming such shortcomings in modern biology. In this connection we made public the result of our research in August 1961.
We have carried on our research into the Kyungrak system in two main directions.
One has been the deeper study of the anatomico-histological features and the functional features of the Kyungrak system as a specific, new connective system of the organism and the other has been the exposition of mechanism regulating the biochemical processes of the Kyungrak system.
In the course of our research we have been further convinced that a certain new system is playing a part in the mechanism regulating the material metabolism, the basis of the vital activities ensuring the unity of activities of the organism.
In our view, this new system is on specifically linking and regulating the processes occurring in all positions of the organism.
In the course of our research into the Kyungrak system we have received boundless solicitude by Comrade Kim Il Sung personally and the Central committee of the Korean Worker’s Party. We have also been given warm support and encouragement by the scientific world and the people at home and abroad.
This has been the source of immense inspiration in our research work.

Part I : MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE KYUNGRAK SYSTEM


Our discovery of the substance of Kyungrak has raised a new question of principle before modern biology.
Having discovered the Kyungrak system as a new anatomico-histological system distinct from the vascular and nervous systems, our research staff set it as the first and foremost task in its further research systematically to elucidate the general morphological features of the Kyungrak system.
We have conducted morphological study of the Kyungrak system through experiments on human bodies and animals applying various anatomico-histological research methods. As a result, we have discovered a number of new structures.

Chapter I : MORPHOLOGY OF THE BONGHAN CORPUSCLE


I. ANTOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE BONGHAN CORPUSCLE


After discovering the Bonghan corpuscles (Corpusculum Bonghan, structures found in the Kyunhyul positions) distributed in the skin we have found them also deep in the organism. This confirmed that the Bonghan corpuscles are classified into the superficial Bonghan corpuscles and the profound Bonghan corpuscles according to their location, forms and structure.

Fig. 1. Model of Superficial Bonghan corpuscle 1)Hair 2)Epidermis 3)Radiation smooth muscle fibre 4)Outer layer 5)Inner substance 6) Superficial Bonghan duct 7)Profound Bonghan duct 8)Skeletal muscle

Fig. 2. Superficial Bonghan corpuscle (16X16)

A. Anatomical Observations on the Superficial Bonghan Corpuscle


By the vivi-staining method and by the unique external appearance of the Kyunghyul position we could unmistakably single out the Bonghan corpuscles and basically clarify their morphological features. The surface of the Kyunghyul position in the living body is more lustrous than in the non-Kyunghyul position and has a light yellowish colour and the appearance of softness (Fig. 1).
The Bonghan corpuscle located in the reticular lay of the skin in the Kyunghyul position is an oval structure with a long diameter of 1.0-3.0 mm and a short diameter of 0.5-1.0 mm, and its long axis stands vertical to the surface of the skin (Fig. 2).
The bottom-most part of the Bonghan corpuscle is connected with the bundle of blood vessels and Bonghan ducts.
Comparatively large blood vessels run around the Bonghan corpuscle, their branches touching it.
The Bonghan corpuscle and tissues around it are loosely linked with each other and there is comparatively much tissue fluid in the connective tissues.
The exposed Bonghan corpuscle is more transparent than the tissues around it and is of light yellow colour. When it is dissected, semi-transparent, semi-fluid, tacky Bonghan liquor flows out of it.

B. Anatomical Observations on the Profund Bonghan Corpuscle


It has been established that profund Bonghan corpuscles are located deep in the subcutaneous tissue, in and around the blood and lymphatic vessels and around the internal organs and that they are connected with the superficial Bonghan corpuscles and internal organs by the Bonghan ducts.
The profund Bonghan corpuscle is a long fusiform one (cucumber-shape) with blunt ends or an oval form. It measures 3.0-7.0 mm in long diameter and 0.5-1.0 mm in short diameter.
Both ends of the Bonghan corpuscle are connected with the Bonghan duct.
The profund Bonghan corpuscle looks more compact than the surrounding tissue and has a light yellow colour and comparatively distinctive features.
Hosts of capillary nets are interwoven around the Bonghan corpuscle.

2. HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BONGHAN CORPUSCLE


The Bonghan corpuscle is not only an anatomical structure with a distinct boundary but has a very special histological structure hitherto unknown.
The superficial and profund Bonghan corpuscles are similar to each other in that both are linked with the Bonghan ducts and are formed of specific cells, but they have a number of different points in structure.

A. Histological Structure of the Superficial Bonghan Corpuscle


The superficial Bonghan corpuscle comprises the outer layer made up of smooth muscle and the inner substance made up of special cellular elements and many capillary nets (Fig. 3).
The outer layer made up of thick smooth muscle layer can be subdivided into outer circulating layer and inner longitudinal layer according to the direction the muscle fibre runs (Fig. 4).
At the top of the superficial Bonghan corpuscle, the smooth muscle fibres spread out in the connective tissues around them, towards the layer of the epidermis (Fig. 5).
The outer circulating layer is a thin smooth muscle fibre layer surrounding the Bonghan corpuscle. It can be distinctly observed in the fresh specimen that exposes the Bonghan corpuscle (Fig. 2).
The smooth muscle fibres in the outer circulating layer are loosely linked up with the connective tissues around them.
The inner longitudinal layer is a thick smooth muscle layer, its fibres running parallel with the long axis of the Bonghan corpuscle.
Of these fibres the muscle fibres abutting on the inner substance run obliquely up to the region bordering on the inner substance and there they all end together. Therefore their border is distinct.
The thickness of the inner longitudinal layer is not uniform; on part is thicker than the other (Fig. 6).

Fig. 3. Longitudinal section of superficial Bonghan corpuscle (16x6.3)

Fig. 4. Outer layer of superficial Bonghan corpuscle (longitudinal section) (16x16)

Fig. 5. Radiating smooth muscle fibre (cross section) on the upper part of superficial Bonghan corpuscle (16x16)

Fig. 6. Cross section of superficial Bonghan corpuscle (16x6.3)

Fig. 7. Argyrophile fibre inside the superficial Bonghan corpuscle (16x16)

We observed a peculiar phenomenon when we applied a needle to the centre of the superficial Bonghan corpuscle from the surface of the skin. The needle slowly makes a conical movement subtly trembling, and at times it moves vertically to the surface of the skin.
This severs to show the characteristic feature of the movement of Bonghan corpuscle. This phenomenon is named “Kim Se Wook phenomenon” (Phenomenon Kim Se Uc) after its discoverer.
The outer layer becomes gradually thinner as it reaches the bottom of the Bonghan corpuscle: the space between the muscle fibres grows wider; and between the muscle fibres there is an abundance of fibrous connective tissues rich in elastic fibres. At the bottom of the Bonghan corpuscle these connective tissues girdle the bundle of blood vessels and Bonghan ducts that are linked up with the Bonghan corpuscle. Argyrophile fibres and capillary vessels are distributed between the smooth muscle fibres of the outer layer (Fig. 7).
These capillary vessels are linked up with the blood vessels of the inner substance and with the blood vessels inside the connective tissues around the Bonghan corpuscle.
In some of the Bonghan corpuscles one can observe, those comparatively thick blood vessels coming from the inner substance in the upper part pass through the outer layer and flow into the capillary vessels in the group of cells under the epidermis.
The inner substance of the Bonghan corpuscle comprises different kinds of cellular groups, fibrous connective tissues which abound in argyrophile fibres surrounding the cellular groups and well-developed capillary nets.
In all parts of the inner substance, on can observe, chromaffin cells are distributed in rows, around the blood vessel, in small groups or scattered. The size of the chromaffin cell is about 15-25 microns in diameter, its shape being round or oval.
In the centre of the cell is a round nucleus 5-10 microns in diameter full of chromatin.
The cytoplasm is evenly filled with granules stained yellowish brown by bichromate. Of these cells some have distinct borders and others have indistinct border.
The inner substance has structures distinct from the connective tissues around it and from the chromaffin cells.
These structures have fibrous structures resembling collagenous and elastic fibres and there appear between them small granules that are sometimes basophilic and at other times acidophilic.
In these structures nuclei of different forms are found scattered in large numbers at times and in a very small number at another time (Fig. 8).
In the central and lower parts of the inner substance we observe a follicular structure consisting of characteristic epithelial cells and around it groups of characteristic cells of the smooth-muscle shape.
There are 1-3 follicular structures in a Bonghan corpuscle.
The wall of the follicular structure is made up of layers of epithelial cells of flat, cuboidal or rhombic shape (Fig. 9)
A cell is about 12-20 microns in diameter; its nucleus is round and 5-10 microns in diameter.

Fig. 8. Inner substance of superficial Bonghan corpuscle (16X16)

Fig. 9. Follicular structure of the inner substance of superficial Bonghan corpuscle (16X16)

The outer part of the follicular structure is thinly enveloped in the connective tissue fibres and there are many capillary vessels around the structure.
Capillary vessels are distributed in the layer of the cells of the follicular structure. Basophilic granules of indefinite forms are often to be found in the cavity of the follicular structure, but no cellular element is to be found.
Peculiar cells of the smooth-muscle shape are observed around the follicular structure. They are of the spindle shape, and their cytoplasm can be deeply stained. They form long lines or small groups.
Between the cells of the smooth-muscle shape there is space and structures resembling an inter-cell bridge are to be found there (Fig. 10).
Nucleus of the cell is small and round, and the chromatin can be deeply stained.
There are dense capillary nets in the inner substance. Particularly in the lower part of it we find many capillaries with wide lumen and in many cases the blood vessels are found full of blood (Fig. 11).
In some of the Bonghan corpuscles we observe the blood vessel in the upper part of the inner substance pass through the outer layer in the direction of the skin. The blood vessel inside the inside the inner substance runs along the bundles of Bonghan ducts and blood vessels hanging on the bottom of the Bonghan corpuscle to join the blood vessels outside the Bonghan corpuscle.
The Bonghan duct and neural element can also be observed inside the inner substance.
There is a small semi-globular mass of cells between the upper part of some superficial Bonghan corpuscles and epidermis and their convex faces look to the Bonghan corpuscle (Fig. 12)
The semi-globular mass of cells is covered with the connective tissue membrane and its border with the epidermis is distinctly discernible. And there are many capillary vessels in the connective tissue membrane.
The border between the cells of this group is distinct; they are about 15-20 microns in diameter; the cytoplasm is bright; the nucleus is round or oval and 8-12 microns in diameter.
The nuclear membrane is clearly observed, the chromatin is comparatively scanty and a small nucleolus is to be seen.
Sometimes pseudo-eosinophilic leucocytes and small cells with curved nuclei make their appearance between cells.
The capillary nets running between cells are connected with the blood vessel coming from the upper part of the superficial Bonghan corpuscle.

Fig. 13. Profund Bonghan corpuscle (16X6.3)

Fig. 14. Profund Bonghan corpuscle (16X16)

Fig. 15. Profund Bonghan corpuscle (16X40)

Fig. 16. Profund Bonghan corpuscle (16X40)

It has been proved that the histological structure of the Bonghan corpuscle has nothing in common with the already discovered structures existing in the skin and that it is a new histological structure.
The Bonghan corpuscle is of a peculiar structure clearly distinguishable from the Vater Paccini corpuscle, form the Feuer-Glosser cutaneous glomerules and from the Pinkus hair disk. When we bisect the superficial Bonghan corpuscle in its fresh condition, stain it with acridine-orange and observe it under a luminescent microscope, we find its outer layer tinged with yellowish brown and its inner substance emitting brilliant blue green fluorescence.

B. Histological Structure of the Profund Bonghan Corpuscle


The profund Bonghan corpuscle we have newly discovered is different from the superficial Bonghan corpuscle. It has no outer layer of smooth muscle; it comprises cells of different forms and sizes and basophilic substances.
Cells in the Bonghan corpuscle are arranged in a definite order. At one end of the Bonghan corpuscle are gathered mostly big cells with pale cytoplasm, distinct borders and a pale round nucleus. Cells of this type make up more than 50 percent of the profund Bonghan corpuscles and without distinct borders they gradually pass on to a group of cells whose nucleus is bigger or smaller than the lymphocyte (Fig. 13).
The chromatin of the nucleus of these cells can be deeply stained the inner structure of the nucleus is not distinct and its cytoplasm is very small in quantity.
This group of cells is followed gradually by basophilic substance of different shape-granular, rod and thread-big and small.
These basophilic substances which are originally distributed in an irregular manner take elongated zig-zag shape, cores of microns in length, at the region where Bonghan duct begins. Their arrangement coincides with the course of Bonghan duct (Fig. 14).
We observe well-developed capillary nets in this region of the Bonghan corpuscle where there are many basophilic substances (Fig. 15).
In the profund Bonghan corpuscle on can observe chromaffin cells existing in groups or scattered among other cells (Fig. 16).
The existence of the chromaffin cells in the profund Bonghan corpuscle might present the need of distinguishing them form the paraganglia. But the composition and forms of cells and distribution of the blood vessel in the Bonghan corpuscle show that they are distinct from the paraganglia.

Chapter II : MORPHOLOGY OF THE BONGHAN DUCT

1. ANATOMICAL OBSERVATION ON THE BONGHAN DUCT


The Bonghan duct (Ductus Bonghan, a tubular structure linked with the Bonghan corpuscle) is observed in the vital specimen as a semi-trans-parent and somewhat yellowish thread-shaped structure surrounded with connective tissues, and it contains densely distributed capillary vessels.
Bonghan ducts are linked either with one end of the Bonghan corpuscle (superficial Bonghan corpuscle), or with both ends (profund Bonghan corpuscle) and are distributed in the superficial and profund layers of the body.
The Bonghan ducts in the superficial layer, which connect the superficial Bonghan corpuscles, are distributed in the whole body in a definite system, running in the derma. Therefore we call them “superficial Bonghan ducts”.
The Bonghan ducts, however, are not only found in the superficial layer of the body, but are also widely distributed in its profund layer; and it has been newly observed topographically that the Bonghan ducts, running in general along the vessels in all parts of the body-the head, neck, chest, abdomen, limbs, etc.-branch off to all internal organs including the brain.
In this way the superficial Bonghan duct, which starts from the superficial Bonghan corpuscle enters the body cavity, running through the skin and the muscle layer along the blood vessel, and there, joining with the profund Bonghan duct or profund Bonghan corpuscle, branches off to the relevant organs along the blood vessel.
For instance, it is observed that the Bonghan duct starting from the Bonghan corpuscle at the Joksamri puncture links itself with the profund Bonghan corpuscle after running along the ischiadic nerves and blood vessel bundles, and is distributed in the intestines.
These superficial and profund Bonghan ducts, running outside the vessels generally, keep a definite connection, and are distributed in the corresponding Bonghan corpuscles and organs. So we call them as a whole “extravascular Bonghan ducts”.
Moreover, we have also discovered the existence of a structure inside the vessel, a fact which no one has ever conceived of.
We have established through various experiments that the new structure is the same as the extravascular Bonghan duct in respect both of form and construction.
These structures exist not only in the artery and vein, but also in the heart, in the thoracic duct and lymphatic vessels without exception and they are found in the blood and lymph in all vessels in a state of isolation, not adhering to the vessel wall (Fig. 17).
We decided to call this structure “intravascular Bonghan duct” or “Bak Jung Sik-Bonghan duct” (Ductus Bonghan-Pac Dieng Sic) after the name of its discoverer.
The intravascular Bonghan duct running inside the vessel branches off at the diverging point of the vessel and not only enters into the brain and other internal organs but also links the superficial and profund Bonghan corpuscles with the corresponding internal organs.
The superficial Bonghan duct is linked with the lower end of the superficial Bonghan corpuscle in unipolar or pseudo-unipolar form, and the profund Bonghan duct is linked in a bipolar form with both ends of the profund Bonghan corpuscle existing in all regions. Semi-fluid and sticky liquid of somewhat yellowish colour is observed flowing in the Bonghan duct.
This liquid is named “Bonghan liquor” (Liquor Bonghan).

2. HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BONGHAN DUCT

It is established that extravascular Bonghan duct and intravascular Bonghan duct are of the same histological structure and have a series of features entirely distinct from the histological structure of the blood vessel, nerve, and lymphatic vessel so far known to us.
Each Bonghan duct is formed of a bundle of several Bonghan ductules. The Bonghan ductule has a unique striated structure and its wall is made of very thin endothelial cells.
The diameter of the Bonghan ductule, though it varies according to its functions and the quantity of its content, ranges from 10 microns, when it is thin to 30-50 microns, when it is thick, in the routine fixed specimen.
When injected with a certain staining solution, the diameter of the Bonghan ductule becomes more enlarged than in its normal state (Fig. 18).
The border of endothelial cells forming the wall of Bonghan ductule, unlike those of the lymphatic and blood vessels is difficult to discern in the histological specimen, but there appear many long rod-shaped, narrow nuclei of 12-20 microns (Fig. 19).
This nucleus can be stained heavily and its nucleolus is to be seen with difficulty.
Large and small basophilic granules in the Bonghan ductule are observed in the histological specimen, which are more densely distributed around the circumference of the Bonghan ductule than in its interior.
The form and size of this granule vary depending on the location of the Bonghan duct and the method of making the histological specimen.
The contents of the Bonghan duct preset themselves in the form of droplet of various sizes when put to special staining, and are observed to be full of small granules when injected with a certain staining solution.
When these contents are stained with acridine-orange and observed under a luminescent microscope, they are seen, as in the case of the inner substance of the superficial Bonghan corpuscle, producing a bright, unique fluorescence of deep green or yellowish green colour (see part III).
Such phenomenon of producing fluorescence suggests that the contents of Bonghan corpuscle and the Bonghan duct are of special nature.
When observed under a phase-contrast microscope, the wall of the Bonghan duct is very thin; its rod-shaped endothelial nucleus is clearly distinguished b its dark shadow and the lines of each Bonghan ductule in the Bonghan duct are distinct (Fig. 20).
On the vivi-stained specimen unique striated structures with different striae from those of the skeletal muscle are clearly observed in the Bonghan ductules which also contain granules.
The basic histological structure of the Bonghan duct itself mentioned above is the same both in the extravascular Bonghan duct and in the intravascular Bonghan duct. But their surrounding tissues are different from each other.
But the extravascular Bonghan duct is covered with fibrous connective tissues which contain many capillary vessels densely distributed in them.
Fibrous connective tissues made of numerous elastic fibres are also observed surrounding the circumference of the Bonghan duct at the connecting point of the Bonghan duct and the Bonghan corpuscle.

Fig. 19. Extravascular Bonghan duct (16X40)

Fig. 20. Phase-contrast microscopic observations of Bonghan duct

SUMMARY


The new facts we have found in the course of studying the morphological features of the Bonghan corpuscle and the Bonghan duct, the major component elements of the Kyungrak system, will help eliminate the limitation in the established anatomico-histological conception in biology and raise new questions in the basic theory of biology.
Kyunghyul which was vaguely considered to be a position where nerves and blood vessels branch off to the skin, has come to hold a firm place as a new morphological unit with its specific anatomical and histological structure.
It was found, in particular, that the Bonghan corpuscles which had been so far considered to exit only in the skin, are also distributed deep in the living organism (deep in the skin and around the blood vessels and internal organs) in a definite law-governed order, forming a unified system with the Bonghan corpuscles in the superficial layer.
As for the Bonghan corpuscles, there are superficial Bonghan corpuscles in the skin and profound Bonghan corpuscles distributed deep in the organism
The profound Bonghan corpuscle with no outer smooth-muscle layer differs from the superficial Bonghan corpuscles in that they have different cellular elements.
The unique movement observed in the superficial Bonghan corpuscle, when a small needle is applied to it, can be well explained by the histological structure of the Bonghan corpuscle made of thick outer smooth muscle layer, and it well coincides with the practice of acupuncture treatment of a long tradition.
Up to now biology has not known any other structure existing in the blood and lymphatic vessels than the blood and lymph.
But we have found for the first time that th Bonghan ducts run inside the blood and lymphatic vessels.
The data obtained from our experiments prove that there are two kinds of Bonghan ducts-extravascular and intravascular-and that the extravascular Bonghan ducts are classified into the superficial Bonghan ducts linking the superficial Bonghan corpuscles and the profound Bonghan ducts linking the profound Bonghan corpuscles, the internal organs and the superficial Bonghan corpuscles.
Thus, we think we have basically clarified the whole picture of the Kyungrak system, a new anatomical and histological system which, independent of the vascular and nervous system, unifies and integrates the Bonghan corpuscles and Bonghan ducts.
A systematic observation of the course of the Bonghan ducts in the artery, vein and lymphatic vessels and in the heart, as well as experiments in injecting a staining solution into the Bonghan corpuscle and Bonghan duct served to prove that the Kyungrak system functions as a unique circulating system.
Particularly, the facts that the contents both in the superficial Bonghan corpuscle and the Bonghan duct produce specific fluorescence due to acridine-orange and that a special basophilic substance exists in the profound Bonghan corpuscle prove, along with the histo-chemical observations to be mentioned below, that there exists desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the Bonghan duct.
This suggests that the activity of the Kyungrak system will exert a great influence on the material metabolism and physiological and pathological process of the organism.

PART II : EXPERIMENTAL-PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE KYUNGRAK SYSTEM


The facts that the Kyungrak system is one of the duct systems distributed in the whole of the living body and that the Bonghan duct comprises a bundle of ductules and runs not only outside the vessels but also inside the blood and lymphatic vessels are indicative of the distinctive features of the functions of the Kyungrak system.
In view of the biochemical features of the Bonghan liquor flowing in the Bonghan duct, it is presumed that the Bonghan liquor formed in the Bonghan corpuscle is supplied to all cells and tissues in the course of circulating through the whole body. Therefore it is necessary to fully elucidate the question of the circulation of the Bonghan liquor.
At the same time, the study of excitability and conductivity of the Kyungrak system is not only vital for the clarification of its general physiological features but also of great importance in the study of its circulating functions.
We have applied the dye injection method and the method of using radioactive tracers in the study of the question of the circulation of the Bonghan liquor and te electro-physiological method in the research into the excitability and conductivity of the Kyungrak system.

Chapter I : STUDY OF THE CIRCULATION OF THE BONGHAN LIQUOR


We made a study of the process of circulation in the Kyungrak system with the aid of the method of radioactive tracers.
Here we adopted dosimetry of radioactivity and radioautography.

1. CIRCULATION OF THE BONGHAN LIQUOR IN THE SUPERFICIAL BONGHAN DUCT


A. Experiments by Dosimetry of Radioactivity


To observe the circulation of the Bonghan liquor in the superficial Bonghan duct, we injected P32 (K2Hp32O4 or Na2HP32O4 to the amount of 5-50-100 microcurie) into the Bonghan corpuscle in the skin of the inner side of the femur and the abdominal wall of a rabbit and, after the lapse of a certain time (30minut to 6 hours)


Fig. 21 shows the result of dosimetry 3 hours after P32 was injected into a Bonghan corpuscle in the inner side of the femur skin of a rabbit.

Fig. 21. Distribution of P32 (50 uC) after its injection into the Bonghan corpuscle in the inner-side skin of the femur.

Fig. 22. Distribution of P32 (100 uC) after its injection into the Bonghan corpuscle in the abdominal skin.

According to this experiment, radioactivity of the tissues on the Bonghan duct having the Bonghan corpuscle injected with P32 is far higher activities are observed on a nearly straight line.
Radioactivity is comparatively high also in the tissues around the above-said Kyungrak system with higher radioactivity. This is explained by the fact that when P32 is injected into the Bonghan corpuscle, part of it tends to flow into the blood and lymphatic vessels within the corpuscle and another part of it might spread out of the Bonghan duct to the surroundings.
When P32 is injected into the Bonghan corpuscle in the skin of abdominal wall of a rabbit, positions indicating higher radioactivity can be seen on a line parallel with linea alba, as the case of the femur (Fig. 22).
Noticeable in this experiment is the fact that positions with higher radioactivity can be seen on a line which runs straight in the skin of abdominal wall, slightly sideways near the chest and then straight again.
We conducted the following experiments to reaffirm the above-mentioned experimental data.
When P32 was injected into the blood vessel (ear vein), almost no difference of radioactivity was observed between the tissues of the Kyungrak system and those around it.
We cut the tissue lying between Bonghan corpuscles in the skin of the abdominal wall of a rabbit and injected P32 into the Bonghan corpuscle on the cranial side of the cut (Fig. 23A). When we determined the radioactivity of the tissue of the Bonghan corpuscle on the cranial side of the one injected with P32, the counts per minute (cpm) were 3,330+-26.4, whereas the cpm of the Bonghan corpuscle on the caudal side of the cut were no more than 580+-11.1.

Fig. 23 A-B. Distribution of P32 injected after the cut of the tissue between Bonghan corpuscles.

Fig. 23 B

When we cut of the femur of a rabbit and injected P32 into the Bonghan corpuscle on the distal side of the cut (Fig.23B), the cpm in the Bonghan corpuscle on the distal side of the cut were 14,800+-40.6, whereas the cpm of the Bonghan corpuscle on the proximal side of the cut were no more than 1,630+-13.8.
These experimental data point to the existence of the Bonghan duct, a structure in which certain substance can circulate, between Bonghan corpuscles.
In view of the fact that when P32 is infused into a Bonghan corpuscle, it is liable to diffuse in the tissues surrounding it, we determined radioactivity in the skin around the Bonghan corpuscle injected with P32.
According to the experiments on the Bonghan corpuscle in the inner side of the femur (Fig. 24), the cpm of the tissue on the Bonghan duct having the P32-injected Bonghan corpuscle were 20,200+-63.6 and 38,217+-87.4, whereas the radioactivity of the tissues with a certain distance from the Bonghan corpuscle, was much lower, i.e., the cpm were 1,453+-17.4 and 4,950+-31.7.

Fig. 24. Radioactivity of the surrounding tissues after injection of P32 (100uC) into a Bonghan corpuscle.

This experimental result proves that a large amount of the injected P32 migrate along the Bonghan duct.

B. Radioautographical Experiments


We applied radioautography to further confirm the existence of the radioactive isotope circulating in the Bonghan corpuscles and Bonghan ducts. Fig. 25. Shows the result of experiment conducted by radioautography on the skin after P32 was injected into a Bonghan corpuscle in the lateral side of the femur of a rabbit.
In the photo, 2 and 3 to 4 spots can be observed on the skin of the outer side of the injected femur and the abdominal wall respectively and these spots form a line running from the outer side of the femur to the abdominal wall.

Fig. 25. Radioautogram after the injection of P32 into a Bonghan corpuscle in the lateral-side skin of the femur of a rabbit.

A photo taken after the injection of P32 into the Bonghan corpuscle in the skin of the abdominal wall also shows negative spots forming a row (Fig. 26).
The positions of the negative spots seen in the above radioautogram coincide with the positions of higher radioactivity spotted by dosimetry.
To confirm the coincidence of the positions of spots with the positions of the Bonghan corpuscles, we located several Bonghan corpuscles on a single Bonghan duct in the order of their position with the aid of a microscope, marked them with a staining solution and observed them by radioautography. We confirmed that the marked positions well coincide with the spots shown in the radioautogram.

Fig. 26. Radioautogram of the abdominal skin after the injection of P32 into a Bonghan corpuscle.

Radioautogram of the skin specimen made by a different method shows a row of spots running from the femur to the abdomen (Fig.27). It is completely different from the path of the blood and lymphatic vessels observed in the skin specimen; it morphologically coincides with the path of the Bonghan duct.

Fig. 27. Radioautogram after the injection of P32 into a Bonghan corpuscle on the inner-side skin of a rabbit femur.

On the basis of the above-mentioned experimental data, we can consider that the positions of spots seen in the radioautogram coincide with the positions of the Bonghan corpuscles and that they, linked with each other by the Bonghan duct, form a course of circulation.

2. CIRCULATION OF THE BONGHAN LIQUOR IN THE PROFUND BONGHAN DUCT


To observe circulation in the profund Bonghan duct, we injected P32 into the profund Bonghan corpuscle on the extravascular Bonghan duct running between the circumference of the aorta in the abdominal cavity and the profund cervical region, and cut off a mass of tissues containing the Bonghan corpuscle, Bonghan duct and other surrounding tissues in the cervical region (muscle and connective tissues) 1 hour and 2 hours after injection respectively, and compared their radioactivity.
According to the experiment (Table 1) for determining radioactivity at the position of the Bonghan duct in the cervical region after injection of P32 into the profund Bonghan corpuscle located on the Bonghan duct on the abdominal aorta side, more of the injected P32 is found in the Bonghan duct than in the controls.

Table 1: Radioactivity of the Bonghan duct after injection of P32 into the profund extravascular Bonghan duct

When the Bonghan duct is cut, such phenomenon cannot be observed (Table 2). The radioactivity in the Bonghan duct on the cranial side of the cut is not so high as in the above experimental results.

Table 2: Radioactivity of the Bonghan duct after the Bonghan duct is cut and P32 injected into the profund Bonghan corpuscle

In the above experiments the controls also show a certain niveau of radioactivity. We consider this to be the result of the fact that when P32 is injected into the Bonghan duct, part of it is absorbed into the blood in the surrounding tissues and spreads throughout the body. The results of these experiments are indicative of the circulation of the Bonghan liquor in the profund Bonghan duct, too.
Contrary to the experiments done, when we inject P32 into the cervical part of the above-mentioned Bonghan duct and determine radioactivity in the abdominal part of the Bonghan duct, the movement of P32 in the Bonghan duct is hardly noticeable (Table 3).

Table 3: Radioactivity of the Bonghan duct on the abdominal side after injection of P32 into the cervical part of the Bonghan duct

This proves the one-sided directional of P32 in the Bonghan duct.
Next, in order to elucidate the circulation of the Bonghan liquor in the intravascular Bonghan duct, we injected P32 into the Bonghan duct inside the vein of an internal organ in the abdominal cavity and traced it circulating into the Bonghan duct in the femoral artery through the intravascular Bonghan duct of major circulation.
As P32 injected into the Bonghan corpuscle and Bonghan duct in the abdominal cavity might spread to the tissues surrounding the injected position and be absorbed by the blood, as in the case of injection into the superficial Bonghan corpuscle, we determined and compared, to begin with, the radioactivity of the blood when P32 is injected into the blood vessel (ear vein) with that when it is injected into the Bonghan duct (Fig. 28).

Fig. 28. Change of blood radioactivity after the injection into the blood vessel and the Bonghan duct.

As can be seen in Fig. 28, when P32 is injected into the blood vessel, the radioactivity of the blood sharply rises 1 minute after the injection and then gradually subsides in the following 5 minutes. Such changes of the blood radioactivity can be observed also when P32 is injected into the Bonghan duct.
When we determine the radioactivity on the femoral artery after injection of P32 into the blood vessel (ear vein), the radioactivity, like the changes of the blood radioactivity observed in the above-mentioned experiments, generally reaches the maximum during the period from 1 to 5 minutes and then subsides a little, and then no remarkable change is observed for a definite period of time.
But a different phenomenon is observed in the data on the determination of radioactivity on the femoral artery after P32 is injected into the Bonghan duct (Fig. 29).

Fig. 29. Changes of radioactivity determined on the femoral artery after injection of P32 into the blood vessel and the Bonghan duct.

Radioactivity in this case rises slowly compared with the case of injecting P32 into the blood vessel. In general, it takes about 30 to 50 minutes to reach a certain level and then it shows the tendency of gradual ascent.
We may conclude from this that such changes of cpm determined on the femoral artery have little connection with the P32 included in the blood of the femoral artery, but are related to the P32 circulating through the Bonghan duct running in the blood vessel.
It is presumed that radioactivity in the region of the femoral artery gradually rises because the injected P32 flows into the Bonghan duct and circulates slowly through it.
To establish the circulation of the Bonghan liquor in the intravascular Bonghan duct more firmly, we determined directly the radioactivity of the intravascular Bonghan duct after injection of P32 into the profund Bonghan corpuscle.
The radioactivity of the Bonghan duct taken out of the descending aorta 30 minutes after injection of P32 into Bonghan duct in the vein of the internal organ in the lower part of the abdomen is more than 100 times higher than the radioactivity of the blood of the descending aorta at that moment, and two hours later it is still nearly 95 times higher (Table 4).

Table 4: Radioactivity of the intravascular Bonghan duct after injection of P32 into the profund Bonghan corpuscle.

Even after the blood in the aorta was completely discharged by perfusion, the radioactivity of the intravascular Bonghan duct there still remained markedly high.
This proves that a large amount of the injected P32 is circulating through the Bonghan duct.
Summing up the experimental data mentioned above, we have drawn the conclusion that the Bonghan liquor circulates slowly in a definite direction through the Bonghan duct.

SUMMARY


When radioisotope is infused into a Bonghan corpuscle connected with a superficial Bonghan duct, it moves along slowly towards the next Bonghan corpuscle on the same Bonghan duct.
When radioautography is carried out in the skin following the infusion of radioisotope into the Bonghan corpuscle, spots can be observed on the film in a row at the position of the Bonghan corpuscle and, also, a line of shadow can be observed along the course of the Bonghan duct.
This line of shadow is different from the blood vessel, lymphatic vessel and nerve courses. The radioisotope infused into the profund Bonghan corpuscle and profund Bonghan duct circulates in a certain direction along the Bonghan duct. When a staining solution is infused into the Bonghan duct, too, one can see it moving along in the duct as in the above-mentioned case. The results of these experiments testify to the circulation of the Bonghan liquor.

Chapter II : BIOELECTRICAL STUDY OF THE KYUNGRAK SYSTEM


Because of the morphological features of the Bonghan corpuscle which has a smooth-muscle layer and secreting cells, it was presumed that the corpuscle performed a series of movements as well as secretion and, on this basis, an electrophysiological analysis was made of the excitation process under the physiological conditions and under various stimuli.

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